Irrigation originated from the transfer of streams and […]
Irrigation originated from the transfer of streams and streams to farmland. Downgrade through furrows to distribute waterways throughout the crop. The system uses gravity to transfer water to plants. This method is often referred to as flood irrigation, which causes flooding of farmland.
It was not until the Industrial Revolution of 1760 that combustion and electric engines could mechanically increase water pressure, and irrigation technology changed fundamentally. Artificial water pressure allows water to be distributed to crops regardless of the slope. Drip irrigation systems can be used with artificial or gravity sensing hydraulic systems. Buried drip irrigation was developed in Germany in the 1860s, and porous pipes were used in Germany and Russia in the 1920s. Farmers largely avoid underground drip irrigation due to clogging of sprinklers and difficulties in working and maintaining underground irrigation systems. Surface drip irrigation became popular in the 1970s, with Australia, the United States and Israel as the main leaders.
International corporate groups have promoted the use of drip irrigation technology by small shareholders in sub-Saharan Africa, mainly due to increased production of cash crops, such as fresh vegetables. The International Semi-Arid Tropical Crops Research Institute (ICRISAT) has implemented more than 2,000 drip irrigation systems in Niger. These efforts are combined with horticultural training and access to quality cash crop seeds. After the first year, Niger's initial plan retained 60% of plan participants. ICRISAT found that full-time farmers are more likely to continue using drip irrigation. Burkina Faso and Ghana have also received similar drip irrigation training programs to reduce initial investment costs by using a reservoir to supply irrigation systems to several farmers.
Drip irrigation main line and branch line are made of polyvinyl chloride, high density polyethylene (HDPE pipe), low density polyethylene (LDPE pipe). Irrigation efficiency is the amount of water available to the crop compared to the amount of water available to the farm. With good water management practices, the efficiency of ground irrigation in furrows usually reaches 34%, the efficiency of sprinkler irrigation is between 50% and 75%, and the efficiency of drip irrigation is between 75% and 90%. Compared with sprinkler irrigation, drip irrigation can also double the yield of crops with the same amount of water, and use salt water and fresh water without damaging the yield. Unlike traditional irrigation methods, a constant flow of water leaches salt from the plant's root system. The use of salt water can reduce the need for fresh water in dry areas, and the amount of food grown with the same amount of water can be doubled.